Learners will identify implicit bias, privilege, and fragility regarding patient interactions, their relationship to structures of oppression, and practices for self-reflection and self-care.
Personal Reflection Questions
- If you identified with any of the statements mentioned in this video, from “Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack”, think about which characteristics your privilege arises from. Do you feel defensive about these privileges? If so, why do you think that is?
- Can you think of a time when your implicit bias affected your interaction with a patient?
- Have you witnessed the impact of implicit bias during a patient encounter? How did it make you feel to witness that?
“Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” by Peggy McIntosh
Implicit bias among providers
- FitzGerald C, Hurst S. Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Med Ethics. 2017 Mar 1;18(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8. PubMed PMID: 28249596; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5333436.
Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations
- Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. National Academies Press; Washington, DC: 2013.
- Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Baez L, Loehrer P, Pandya KJ. Pain and treatment of pain in minority patients with cancer. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Minority Outpatient Pain Study. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127(9):813–816.
- Goyal MK, Kuppermann N, Cleary SD, Teach SJ, Chamberlain JM. Racial disparities in pain management of children with appendicitis in emergency departments. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(11):996–1002.
- Hoffman KM, Trawalter S, Axt JR, Oliver MN. Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 19;113(16):4296-301. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516047113. Epub 2016 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 27044069; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4843483.